MENELUSURI JEJAK KERATON MAJAPAHIT MELALUI SITUS KUMITIR

Desa Kumitir yang berada di Trowulan, Mojokerto kini menjadi pusat perhatian dari para arkeolog. Sejak penemuan sebuah situs baru di daerah Jawa Timur pada Agustus 2020 lalu, pada area kebun tebu seluas 6 hektare.

Diduga situs tersebut merupakan tempat terkuburnya candi pendharmaan atau yang dikenal dengan makam raja masa Kerajaan Singasari dan Majapahit.

PENEMUAN AWAL SITUS BARU

Berawal dari ditemukannya tumpukan bata kuno yang membentuk seperti dinding bangunan di area perkebunan desa Kumutir, para arkeolog Jawa Timur pun melakukan ekskavasi atau sebuah penggalian awal pada tahun 2019 lalu.

Penggalian dilakukan untuk mengetahui situs bersejarah ini. Situs bersejarah Kumitir ini juga dikenal sebagai sebuah penemuan terbesar benda bersejarah dalam menelusuri jejak Keraton Majapahit pada abad 21.

EKSKAVASI SITUS DI DESA KUMITIR TAHAP 2

Para arkeolog BPCB (Balai Pelestarian Cagar Budaya) Jawa Timur pun melakukan ekskavasi tahap ke 2 pada tahun 2020 lalu, tepatnya di bulan Agustus dan berakhir pada September.

Hal ini dilakukan guna menemukan struktur talud (dinding tanggul) Kumitir, dengan tujuan untuk dapat mendeteksi keberadaan benda dan bangunan bersejarah, serta melakukan pembuktian terhadap dugaan tempat tersebut merupakan candi pendharmaan.

KUMITIR DALAM NASKAH KUNO

Ternyata nama desa Kumitir ini disebutkan di dalam naskah kuno, seperti Kidung Wargasari, Kitab Negarakrtagama, dan Pararaton. Kumitir pada Pararaton dikenal dengan sebutam Kumeper, dan hingga saat ini masih dikenal oleh masyarakat sekitar.

Sementara di dalam Kidung Wargasari dikisahkan bahwa Kumitir menjadi daerah yang dilintasi oleh sepasang keasih, yakni Wargasari dan Narawati, saat ingin memperdalam agama di Majapahit.

Sementara di dalam Kitab Negarakrtagama, Kumitir disebutkan sebagai tempat berdirinya candi pendharmaan yang memiliki latar arca indah dengan agama Siwa. Sementara, menurut arkeolog Jawa Timur, Wicaksono, bangunan candi dibagi 2 jenis, untuk peribadatan dan ada juga yang untuk pendharmaan.

Sehingga, penelitian lanjutan dan mendalam situs Kumitir ini merujuk kepada naskah kuno yang diwariskan pada masa Singasari dan Majapahit.

HASIL EKSKAVASI KUMITIR

Bermula dari sebuah dugaan bahwa situs bersejarah di desa Kumitir ini ialah lokasi dari pendharmaan Mahisa Cempaka yang merupakan kakek dari Raden Wijaya, pendiri Kerajaan Majapahit.

Candi pendharmaam Mahisa Cempaka ini diperkirakan dibangun pada masa Raja Kertanegara di masa Singasari. Kemudian, mengalami pembaruan pada masa kerjaan Majapahit saat dipimpin oleh Raja Hayam Wuruk.

Arkeolog Jawa Timur mengungkapkan bahwa bangunan talud yang ditemukan setelah ekskavasi tahap 2 tesebut dulunya digunakan sebagai sebuah benteng yang memiliki luas sekitar 800 meter persegi.

Bata yang digunakan pada situs Kumitir ini memiliki ketebalan 7 sampai 8 cm, panjang 36 sampai 38 cm, dan lebar 21 sampai 22 cm. jenis bata yang ditemukan pada hasil ekskavasi tersebut adalah bata merah dan batu andesit.

Talud yang ditemukan dan telah mengalami ekskavasi tahap 2 untuk menelusuri jejak Keraton Majapahit juga menjadi langkah awal untuk menemukan kawasan dari pusat kotaraja.

Sayangnya, Wicaksono pun mengungkapkan bahwa situs baru di Kumitir ini bukan merupakan Keraton Majapahit. Tetapi kemungkinan letaknya tidak terlalu jauh dari situs baru di daerah Jawa Timur, yang dahulunya digunakan sebagai benteng.

RENCANA EKSKAVASI LANJUTAN DITAHUN 2021

Penemuan situs Kumitir sejarah baru dan terbesar di daerah Jawa ini pun telah masuk dalam daftar perencanaan untuk melangsungkan ekskavasi lanjutan di tahun 2021 ini.

Petugas BPCB Jawa Timur menemukan berbagai situs yang terkait dengan Kerajaan Majapahit, mulai dari sisa bangunan yang diduga sebagai tempat singgah para petinggi Majapahit.

Di mana candi pendharmaan terletak di dalam kompleks istana petinggi Majapahit, Bhre Wengker.

Penulis: DYAH

Editor: YOHAN I

Penulis Kontributor

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